Human exposure to electromagnetic field is not a new problem. However the rapid and unregulated increase of electrical energy usage in the 20th century coupled with the development of electronics, IT, telecommunication, and satellite navigation as well as diagnostic and industrial devices has brought us not only to analyze the danger to civilization but also to invent new methods for the screening of electromagnetic radiation. An alarming American publication implies that “electromagnetic smog” is the reason for many diseases of civilization such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, it affects us much more than the changes in our lifestyle. [S. Milham, Medical Hypotheses 74(2010)337, Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of ‘‘diseases of civilization”].
The negative impact that electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has on the human body is mainly due to its interference with basic vital functions of the organism. The electrical currents in the human body are one of its normal vital functions. The nerve signals are based on electrical pulses; many biochemical reactions such as digestion or brain activity are a result of electrical processes. It is not a surprise that long-term exposure to electric fields, even of a small strength, can make us feel unwell. [Establishing a Dialogue on Risk from Electromagnetic Fields, World Health Organization, Radiation and Environmental Health Department of the Human Environment, Geneva, Switzerland 2002].]
Composite-multiphase systems are the modern screening materials. In a process that integrates numerous single-functional phases within one material, we can get a multifunctional material that is not only of a low density but is also able to be tailored to the application requirements. The topological composition of the functional fillers has an important role in the design of the properties of these composites. One of the newest concepts in material engineering is to use nano-particles as functional materials, as fillers. Thanks to the reduced linear size such nano-particles have a high surface to volume ratio meaning that they have a large number of active atoms on its surface.
These composites provide a new advance in the design of EMR screens, due to a careful selection of constituent phases, their volumetric ratios and the way different phases are interconnected, we can design screens to absorb a desired frequency range of EMR and degree of screening efficiency. When designing one should:
- Select a functional filler/fillers to ensure its functionality in the simplest or easiest implementation of the composite architecture.
- Aim at ensuring compatibility between the filler and the composite matrix .
- Apply the lowest possible concentration of functional fillers to lower the disturbance caused by them.
During the last three decades interest in the negative biological impact of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields has increased amongst scientists and international organizations and the need for screening arose. [World Health Organization, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection]
A material that is assigned to absorb EMR must comply with the following:
Sci. 44(2009)3917, Polymeric nanocomposites for electromagnetic wave absorption]:
- Its impedance must match the impedance of the medium in which the wave propagates (to minimize reflection),
- The material needs to absorb EMR to the highest degree within its capacity which means that it needs to have a significant dielectric losses or magnetic losses or, in the best case, dielectric losses and magnetic losses.
The basic concept of the ADR®TECHNOLOGY electromagnetic radiation field screen is to use the dielectric absorption of water dispersed in a dielectric matrix in various ways. The water is “captured” within the matrix in the form of micro-drops, nano-drops and the crystallization of water by salts that form hydrates. This makes the screen a composite.
Several types of screens based on ADR®TECHNOLOGY have been produced covering the screening frequency range from extremely low frequencies up to 1 GHz. They are: ceramic matrix screens of ADR®TEX type (3 options), ADR®MAT screens, ADR®SOL preparation and ADR®PRIMER Electro Protect (active impregnating material) and high frequency electromagnetic radiation screens (3 versions have been developed on a laboratory scale).
Until now commonly used electric field screens have employed conductive materials. They consist of a foil or a metallic net, conductive composites or glass, and materials with woven metal wires of micro diameters. These screens are expensive, stiff and need to be grounded. ADR®TECHNOLOGY electric field screens do not require grounding, they are soft, light, inexpensive, and they can be easily fitted.
OPINION OF ADR TECHNOLOGY SCREENING INNOVATION
These multiphase systems are a modern approach to the design of EMR screens. This is so because careful selection of the types of component phases of the composite, their volumetric ratio and the way the phases are interconnected mean that it can be tailored to absorb specific frequency ranges with specific screening efficiencies.
- Analysis of the influence of the component phases’ properties, its architecture and the role of pore size effects of the dispersed phases on the screening frequency range and screening efficiency.
- Analysis of the most modern types of EMF screening materials [2009: Composite Sci. Technol. 69(2009)358, J. Mater. Sci. 44(2009)3917, J. Phys. D 42(2009)155408; 2011: J. Condens. Matter Phys. 1(2011)55, J. Adv. Diel. 1(2011)389, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(2011)137, Adv. Mater. Lett. 2(2011)249; 2012: J. Appl. Phys.112(2012)034107; 2013: Progress Mater. Sci. 58(2013)183)]
I can certify that the EMF solution by ADR®TECHNOLOGY used in five kinds of screens is original and innovative
The innovation of ADR®TECHNOLOGY screens is based upon:
1o the composite fillers show large dielectric absorption in the required frequency range (it is possible to produce screens absorbing frequencies from extremely low up to microwaves),
2o the composites are unique because of their most simple statistical topology of fillers, thanks to which there is no interaction between elements of the same phase occur (as can happen in the case of periodical arrangement),
3o in most of the ADR®TECHNOLOGY screens, thanks to the specially selected composite matrix the appropriate filler topology can be ensured.
Human exposure to electromagnetic field is not a new problem. However, the rapid and uncontrolled increase of electrical energy usage in the 20th century coupled with the development of electronics, IT, telecommunication, and satellite navigation as well as diagnostic and industrial devices brought us not only to analyze civilization’s hazards but also to invent methods to screen electromagnetic radiation.
OPINION ON THE APPLICATION POSSIBILITIES OF ADR TECHNOLOGY
Five types of ADR®TECHNOLOGY screens have been worked out covering the screening frequency range from extremely low frequencies up to frequencies of 1 GHz. Their versatility ensures multiple applications.
ADR®TECHNOLOGY IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
- They can be integrated into preliminary coverage membranes (MWK- roofing screen 165, energy screen 185, roofing screen 215, wool screen 265), vapor permeable films (FWK- roofing films ML90, ML 130 and roofing film MSL 98) and vapor barrier films by MARMA POLSKIE FOLIE and roofing membrane solutions. Application of such integrated membranes allows for simultaneous use of special insulation and isolation properties of the membranes and films in conjunction with screening of the houses from harmful radiation coming from external high and medium voltage electric sources as well as those related to climate changes. Moreover, the DNA repair processes, which take place during the night, would not be interfered with by any electric fields.
- It is also possible to use the membranes and films integrated with ADR®TECHNOLOGY to screen floors, walls or to place ADR®TEX between cavity walls. It can affect our wellbeing and will protect us from the diseases of civilization relating to the expansion of the uses of electricity.
OTHER WAYS OF USING ADR TECNOLOGY
ADR® TEX screen as rolls
They are intended for mattresses, mattress covers, upholstered furniture, protective clothing and other protective structures.
They are designed to protect people from electric fields coming from cables and electronic and electrical devices of everyday household use. The screening efficiency of ADR® MAT within the frequency range from 100 mHz to 100 kHz is 30 dB. Let me point out that even when switched off electrical devices plugged into the energy source create an electric field around both the cables and devices.
ADR® MAT can be used as protection during sleep placed under a mattress or bed. For protection from scattered field the mat can be placed in the duvet cover. I would like to point out that screening during sleep at night is especially important, as that’s when damaged DNA is repaired. Protein synthesis and DNA replication is most efficient during the night. This is because of the absence of sunlight (UV damages DNA) and the active forms of oxygen, which damages DNA, are minimized. [S.J. Collins, S.J. Boulton, Chromosoma 116(2007)12, A role of the circadian system and circadian proteins in aging; F.F. Shadan, Medical Hypotheses 68(2007)883, Circadian tempo: A paradigm for genome stability?; E.M. Gibson, W.P. Williams III, L.J. Kriegsfield, Experimental Gerontology 44(2009)51, Aging in the circadian system: Considerations for health, disease prevention and longevity] ].
- The smallest size of ADR®MAT is designed to be placed on or under a chair or armchair.
- It is extremely important to use ADR®MAT under our laptops especially during travel when we rest them on our lap.
HIGH FREQUENCY Electric Field Screens
They have been developed on the laboratory scale and show a high capability of screening in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 3 GHz. These ADR®TECHNOLOGY nano-composites can be used for testing equipment and for devices used in medical diagnostics (nuclear magnetic resonance: NMR, MRI and paramagnetic electron resonance: EPR) as well as for mobile phone mast screening.
- Adhering ADR®TEX to the inside of plastic cable ducts, skirting boards and cable masking panels and conduits can eliminate electric fields. It will replace aluminum cable covers and skirting boards, which are currently being used (i.e. B-tech BT7070-100, Meliconi Aluminum Cable Cover 65, Sonorous Cable Channel 50).
ADR®SOL, ADR®PRIMER Electro Protect screens:
Porous materials such as concrete, plaster, plaster board, the underneath of roofing slates and untreated wood can also become low frequency electric field screens when impregnated with ADR®SOL. Rooms where this screening has been used are protected from electric fields coming from in-wall cables and from other sources from outside of the building. It is most beneficial when ADR®SOL is used during the construction of new buildings. They can also be used during renovation mixed with glues and paints.
Testing of ADR TEX electromagnetic field shield properties at room temperature
Dielectric losses are considered as a measure of shielding efficiency at radiofrequencies
EMF shielding at 10 GHz. The shielding efficiency at 10 GHz is -35 dBm.
50 Hz electric field distribution without
the ADR TEX
50 HZ electric field distribution with
the ADR TEX under mattress
50 Hz electric field distribution with the ADR TEX under mattress and above quilt